There are different kinds of blood cells, which are circulating in our body. These have varied functions to perform. The blood cells hold a lot of significance for normal working of our body. Red Blood Cells also known as Erythrocytes transport oxygen from lungs to different parts of the body and carbon dioxide back to the lungs for purpose of expiration. Then there are White Blood Cells also known as Leukocytes which protect our body from any kind of attack. When WBCs fall in number this means something in our body is not right. Platelets or Thrombocytes help in the process of clotting. In case of bleeding clots are formed when hinders any excessive blood loss.
Different Blood Cell Problems
Bone marrow produces the blood cells. RBCs have a circulating span of 120 days, for WBCs it is 13-20 days and for platelets the span is 8-9 days. After this they reach the spleen where they are destroyed. Any kind of abnormality in formation, circulation, release, function, and destruction of blood cell can manifest in form of a disorder.
Disorder of Red Blood Cells’
Anemia: It is caused when there is fall in number of RBCs in the body. The person afflicted with this has low Hemoglobin level. Symptoms of anemia are fatigue, dizziness, inability to focus, shortness of breath on exertion, high heart rate and muscle weakness.
Types of Anemia
- Iron Deficiency Anemia- Iron is a vital element need for oxygen circulation in the body. Deficiency of iron is the biggest contributing factor of anemia.
- Anemia of Chronic Disease- Any kind of prolonged inflammatory disease, infection, and autoimmune diseases
- Thalassemia: This is a genetic condition where there is mutation of gene responsible for hemoglobin production in the body.
- Vitamin Deficiency Anemia- Deficiency in vitamin B12 leads to Pernicious Anemia.Deficiency in vitamin B9 also causes anemia. Both these vitamins hold a vital role in the formation of RBCs.
- Sickle Cell Anemia- This is an inherited disease. Protein complex of hemoglobin chain is gets altered because of altered genes.
Polycythemia Vera- This is a condition when there is excessive production of red blood cells or it appears that cells are more and the plasma is less. This is kind of cancer of Red Blood Cells. People suffering from this are more prone to heart attacks and stroke.
Disorders related to White Blood Cells’
There are five kinds of White Blood Cells.
All these work in a coordinated fashion to protect body from danger. An increase in WBCS cells is referred to as Leukocytosis. It is an alarming signal for infection in the body. Leukoenia or decreased production is also serious. Symptoms include: fatigue, malaise, weight loss and recurrent infections.
- Leukemia: This is cancer of bone marrow cells. It encompasses overproduction of RBCs, WBCs and platelets.
- Lymphoma:This is cancer of lymphoid tissue which is present outside bone marrow.
This leads to serious conditions as well as outcomes. Platelets are must for clot formation. Any kind of deviation from normal production will lead to a disorder. Some platelet disorders are inherited.
Thrombocytosis – This happens when body produces excessive number of platelets. It can lead to stroke or ischemic heart episodes.
Thrombocytopenia- This occurs when body produces less platelet than normal. It can lead to unstoppable blood loss. Symptoms are unexplained bleeding from gums, nose, gums , easy bruising etc.
Blood cell disorder can be diagnosed by getting a complete blood count. There are separate tests to diagnose different conditions.